by William Trollinger
Southern Baptist fundamentalists are not having a good time of it these days. There is, for example, the ongoing and deepening scandal at Cedarville (how is that the president and his top administrators are not gone?)
Then there’s Southern Seminary in Louisville, which 15 months ago produced a report detailing the central role of racism in the school’s history. While this was seen in some quarters as a way for the seminary to clear the slate, it turns out the school’s president (who commissioned this report) has his own significant problems with racism.
Frequent rightingamerica contributor Frederick Schmidt has written an arresting article on the situation at Southern Seminary. Here’s a slightly truncated version of Schmidt’s article:
In breaking news, it has been revealed that in 1998, Al Mohler, President of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, defended slavery and condemned the bravery of Harriet Tubman.
An article from the Religious News Service resurrects the conversation and the context for Mohler’s remarks:
On June 12, 1998, Mohler was a guest on “Larry King Live,” along with the Rev. Jerry Falwell Sr. and Patricia Ireland, then-president of the National Organization for Women, to discuss the Southern Baptist Convention’s belief that women should submit to their husbands. The conversation eventually expanded to include a discussion of slavery.
According to a transcript obtained from CNN, Mohler asserted that he agrees with the New Testament’s command for slaves to obey their masters. This doesn’t mean the Bible “endorses” slavery, Mohler said, “but it does say, if you’re a slave, there’s a way to behave.”
King asked whether such a belief meant he would “condemn those who ran away,” like Harriet Tubman.
“Well, I want to look at this text seriously, and it says submit to the master,” Mohler replied. “And I really don’t see any loophole here as much as, in terms of popular culture, we’d want to see one.”
Seemingly stunned, King cut to a commercial break.
Mohler had addressed the racism that dogged the seminary he leads as recently as 2018, but over the years since the interview, he has conveniently omitted any public reference to his own racism. When the Larry King interview surfaced this week, Mohler apologized, or so it seemed at first blush.
On Friday (May 15), Mohler told Religion News Service he was wrong. “It sounds like an incredibly stupid comment, and it was,” he said, after hearing his remarks from 1998. “I fell into a trap I should have avoided, and I don’t stand by those comments. I repudiate the statements I made.”
A Trap of His Own Making
However, the reference to falling “into a trap I should have avoided” erodes any sense in which Mohler might claim to have really apologized. He should have stuck with “stupid,” and he should have considered adding the modifiers, “racist, immoral, and despicable.”
But, since he mentions it, what – exactly – is the “trap” to which Mohler refers? It certainly isn’t Larry King’s follow-up question. That was a legitimate, probing inquiry, that simply asked Mohler to draw the inferences that flow logically from his position.
The answer, rather, seems to lie with Mohler’s approach to Scripture, which reads it as uniformly timeless, prescriptive, and the only source for thinking theologically (sola Scriptura). It cannot be said often enough what a non-starter all three categories are.
That some portions of Scripture are meant to be timeless observations of one kind, or another, is obvious. The difficulty, of course, is deciding when and where to assume that Scripture speaks in timeless categories and – as the example above suggests – it is impossible to make universally applicable rules for when and where to assume it does. What becomes immediately obvious is that making the assumption that Mohler makes is untenable.
If Scripture communicates any of the truths that Christians claim for it, some observations certainly are timeless, but others are clearly not. The recommendations Paul makes to both slaves and slave owners in Ephesians 5:22-6:9 constituted a radical departure from the norms of his day, but they are hardly adequate now, and the moral bankruptcy of the system itself is apparent and has been for centuries.
Somewhat similar observations could be made about the prescriptive approach that Mohler takes to Scripture. Some of it is, to be sure, explicitly prescriptive. The Ten Commandments certainly are. But even when the behavior prescribed in the Bible is fairly specific, that does not mean that it can be or should be obeyed in the form that it appears. This is true of a fair number of prescriptions in Leviticus which have no application in the absence of the Temple. It is true of dietary laws which Christians ignore without a second thought, and it is true of the prescriptions in the Epistle to the Ephesians, where both the experience of the church and the development of the church’s tradition suggest that – as they stand – the prescriptions surrounding slavery have no application.
Both of the assumptions that Mohler makes are all the more problematic, however, when the other trap that his own hermeneutic lays for him is that of sola Scriptura. Whether it is acknowledged in other denominations or not, most churches acknowledge that they are dependent upon both the growing body of reflection on the Gospel that has been passed down through the centuries and on the experience of the church, as guided by the Holy Spirit.
In churches of that kind it is more accurate to talk about prima Scriptura or “the primacy of Scripture,” than it is to talk about “Scripture alone.” It is also easier to acknowledge that – as important as Scripture is – our interpretation of it is dependent upon far more.
Read in this way, one can acknowledge the importance of Paul’s advice to slaves and slaveowners and its contemporary inadequacy at the same time. Paul’s directive is a break with the values of his day, but the value of Paul’s directive does not lie in the advice itself, but in the liberating trajectory of God’s grace. The institution of slavery and a wide array of behaviors that enslave people in ways both old and new are now, rightly, our focus.
Given the way that he reads and uses Scripture and the exclusive place that it occupies in his theology, Mohler cannot do that. So, instead, he is – to use own words – trapped. Trapped by a single understanding of what the text suggests. Trapped by what Paul could see, given his own historical horizons, but ironically, closed off to the grace of God in Christ that liberated him.
The Cruelty of Fundamentalism
Perhaps that is why Mohler cannot really apologize. Even though the fundamentalist use of Scripture is predicated upon faithful adherence to Scripture, its approach to Scripture often cuts itself off from the breadth of God’s grace, and that is evident in Mohler’s truncated apology. We owe far more to those who hear nothing but appalling cruelty in Mohler’s so-called apology. For the full version of Schmidt’s article, see: Al Mohler, Slavery, Tainted Apologies, and Biblical Interpretation
Your Righting America article on Mohler was fantastic! I don’t think I’ve ever read a more succinct critique of that hermeneutic. AND you included a hopeful, theologically liberating alternative!
Dr. Miller, thank you for the kind response and best wishes for your own work.
Thanks for this article. To be fair, Willie James Jennings’ acclaimed book, The Christian Imagination: Theology and the Origins of Race, provides a compelling account of how both the Church of England and the Catholic Church were complicit in creating the social construct of race during colonization. White supremacy went hand-in-hand with colonization, therefore, and the church was right there to help. In short, race was invented, and people of color were subjugated and oppressed based upon the notion that whiteness was equal to being civilized, intelligent, dignified, and worthy. Chattel slavery was borne from this destructive belief shortly thereafter.
That being said, the Southern Baptist Convention was founded upon white supremacy. As Jemar Tisby explains in his book, The Color of Compromise, the SBC was founded in order to keep African Americans, who’d begun to attend Baptist churches in the later days of slavery, out. And of course, they held to that erroneous interpretation of those verses in Ephesians. The fact that in 1998 Al Mohler still didn’t seem to know that the slavery mentioned in those verses was in no way similar to chattel slavery is inexcusable. The slavery the apostle Paul refers to in those verses is what we now call indentured servitude. It was entered into so that the “slave” could pay off debt. The book of Philemon is a perfect example. Onesimus was a “slave” who’d run away, and Philemon wrote him, telling him to return to his master–not because he approved of something like chattel slavery but because Onesimus hadn’t yet paid off his debt. Onesimus was not a chattel slave. How could Mohler not have known this in 1998? And how could he not have clarified this even now in his supposed apology? Mohler is no idiot; he reads voraciously history, literature, theory, etc. So I think you’re right: The only trap was one of his making, revealing who he really is (To wit: https://baptistnews.com/article/the-moral-hypocrisy-of-albert-mohler-and-evangelicals-of-his-ilk/#.XsqCOGhKjIU).
Incidentally, I can clearly remember a few chapel services at Cedarville University in the early aughts where Al Mohler was raised up as a hero for cleaning out liberalism from the SBC’s Southern Seminary (see also that article linked to above). This admiration for Mohler certainly was rooted in fundamentalism. It also became connected to the paranoia about perceived liberalism at CU under Pres. Brown’s tenure and the desire to bring in a new man to clean house like Mohler. Of course, Paige Patterson led that charge by offering up Thomas White as the solution.
And now perhaps, we’ve come full circle on the news of the day. 😉
Thank you, Julie, for both making clear how the larger Christian church helped create white supremacy, and for providing more context on the racism at the heart of the past and present (e.g., Al Mohler’s statements and non-apology) of the Southern Baptist Convention.